Introduction to Urban issues and challenges
As you watch the introduction video, consider these questions.
What is urbanisation?
‘A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities resulting in their growth.’
Take a look at this timelapse image https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/dubai.php
What changes do you see? Where might this be?
This is a very clear example of urbanisation.
Video 1 - Urbanisation and the future of cities
Print this AFL Grid for your books. Complete the before column before you study the topic.
A growing percentage of the world’s population lives in urban areas.
The global pattern of urban change.
Global population growth was steady between 0AD and 1000 AD.After this time population began to grow from approximately 0.3 billion in 1000 to 0.6 billion in 1500. After 1750 the population began to grow rapidly. By 1900 the worlds population had increased to 1.7 billion. The really rapid growth came after 1900, by 2000 the population had reached 6.2 billion.
The global population reached 7 billion in October 2011 according to the United Nations. How many of these live in urban areas?
Watch Video 2 - Rise and Fall of Cities. What patterns do you notice? Where do most cities develop? Why might this be the case?
Video 2 - Rise and Fall of Cities
Image 1 - Map of Urban Population
Take a look at image 1 - Map of Urban Population.
Which countries have the highest urban populations?
Which countries have the lowest urban populations?
Is this what you would expect? Are there any surprises?
Some facts for you...
In 2014, 54% of the global population lived in urban areas. Merely 34% in 1960.
The global urban population is expected to grow by approximately 1.84% per year between 2015 and 2020,
Urban population growth is most rapid in LICs and MICs
By 2030 the number of urban dwellers is expected to be about 1.8 billion more than in 2005 and to be about 60% of the world’s population.
95% of the increase in urban populations is expected in developing countries, especially in Africa and Asia.
Urban trends in different parts of the world including HICs and LICs.
Factors affecting the rate of urbanisation – migration (push–pull theory), natural increase.
The emergence of megacities.
Most urbanisation in the next 50 years is expected to take place in Africa and Asia and as result the number of megacities in the world will grow. A megacity is defined as a city with a greater population than 10 million people.
Urban growth creates opportunities and challenges for cities in LICs and NEEs.
You need to have a case study of a major city in an LIC or NEE to illustrate:
the location and importance of the city, regionally, nationally and
•• causes of growth: natural increase and migration
•• how urban growth has created opportunities:
•• social: access to services – health and education; access to resources – water supply, energy
•• economic: how urban industrial areas can be a stimulus for economic development
•• how urban growth has created challenges:
•• managing urban growth – slums, squatter settlements
•• providing clean water, sanitation systems and energy
•• providing access to services – health and education
•• reducing unemployment and crime
•• managing environmental issues – waste disposal, air and water pollution, traffic congestion.